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QS and RIL contributed equally.
Contributors QS and RIL conceptualised and designed the study. QS conducted data analyses. RIL collected and interpreted subjects' clinical data. QL provided critical suggestions on data analysis. FKLC contributed to the study design and data interpretation. SCN contributed to the study design, data analysis and manuscript writing. All authors gave final approval for the version to be published.
Funding This work was supported by The Health and Medical Research Fund, the Food and Health Bureau, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. The authors are partially supported by InnoHK, The Government of Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China. R.I.L. received additional support from the Hong Kong PhD Fellowship Scheme (HKPFS).
Competing interests FKLC and SCN are the scientific co-founders and sit on the board of Directors of GenieBiome Ltd. SCN has served as an advisory board member for Pfizer, Ferring, Janssen, and Abbvie and a speaker for Ferring, Tillotts, Menarini, Janssen, Abbvie, and Takeda. She has received research grants from Olympus, Ferring, and Abbvie. FKLC has served as an advisor and lecture speaker for Eisai Co. Ltd., AstraZeneca, Pfizer Inc., Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., and Takeda (China) Holdings Co. Ltd. All other co-authors declare no competing interests.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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