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Inflammatory bowel disease increases the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a Danish nationwide cohort study 1977–2014

Abstract

Objective Intestinal inflammation has been suggested to play a role in development of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA). To test the hypothesis that IBD is associated with risk of PD and MSA, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Design The cohort consisted of all individuals diagnosed with IBD in Denmark during 1977–2014 (n=76 477) and non-IBD individuals from the general population, who were comparable in terms of gender, age and vital status (n=7 548 259). All cohort members were followed from IBD diagnosis/index date to occurrence of PD and MSA (according to the Danish National Patient Register).

Results Patients with IBD had a 22% increased risk of PD as compared with non-IBD individuals (HR=1.22; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35). The increased risk was present independently of age at IBD diagnosis, gender or length of follow-up. The overall incidence of MSA was low in our study, and the regression analysis suggested a tendency towards higher risk of developing MSA in patients with IBD as compared with non-IBD individuals (HR=1.41; 95% CI 0.82 to 2.44). Estimates were similar for women and men. The increased risk of parkinsonism was significantly higher among patients with UC (HR=1.35; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.52) and not significantly different among patients with Crohn’s disease (HR=1.12; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.40).

Conclusions This nationwide, unselected, cohort study shows a significant association between IBD and later occurrence of PD, which is consistent with recent basic scientific findings of a potential role of GI inflammation in development of parkinsonian disorders.

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • parkinsonism
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • hazard ratio
  • inflammation
  • enteric nervous system

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