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Original article
Alterations of the bile microbiome in primary sclerosing cholangitis

Footnotes

  • TL and RZ contributed equally.

  • Contributors TL performed all statistical analyses, prepared the graphics, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. RZ contributed to the acquisition and interpretation of the data and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. CJ performed the bile acid assay and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. HE contributed to acquisition of the data and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. MCR gave bioinformatic and statistical advice and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. CB was responsible for next-generation sequencing and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. HE, SG, GS, MK, TR, NA, AWL and CS performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and acquisition of bile samples. THK and JRH contributed external validation data and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. WL, JH and AWL contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. AF and CS planned and supervised the study, contributed to critical revision of intellectual content and critically revised the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ‘Clinical Research Group 306’ (KFO306) ─ Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Furthermore, the study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Cluster of Excellence ‘Inflammation at Interfaces’ (http://www.inflammation-at-interfaces.de, no: EXC306 and EXC306/2), the Collaborative Research Center 1182 ‘Origin and Function of Metaorganisms’ (www.metaorganism-research.com, no: SFB1182) and the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) programme: Med sysINFLAME (http://www.gesundheitsforschung-bmbf.de/de/5111.php, no: 01ZX1306A). CS receives support from the Helmut and Hannelore Greve-Foundation.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The protocol was reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee (PV4114).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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Footnotes

  • TL and RZ contributed equally.

  • Contributors TL performed all statistical analyses, prepared the graphics, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. RZ contributed to the acquisition and interpretation of the data and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. CJ performed the bile acid assay and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. HE contributed to acquisition of the data and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. MCR gave bioinformatic and statistical advice and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. CB was responsible for next-generation sequencing and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. HE, SG, GS, MK, TR, NA, AWL and CS performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and acquisition of bile samples. THK and JRH contributed external validation data and contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. WL, JH and AWL contributed to critical revision of intellectual content. AF and CS planned and supervised the study, contributed to critical revision of intellectual content and critically revised the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) ‘Clinical Research Group 306’ (KFO306) ─ Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis. Furthermore, the study was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Cluster of Excellence ‘Inflammation at Interfaces’ (http://www.inflammation-at-interfaces.de, no: EXC306 and EXC306/2), the Collaborative Research Center 1182 ‘Origin and Function of Metaorganisms’ (www.metaorganism-research.com, no: SFB1182) and the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) programme: Med sysINFLAME (http://www.gesundheitsforschung-bmbf.de/de/5111.php, no: 01ZX1306A). CS receives support from the Helmut and Hannelore Greve-Foundation.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The protocol was reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee (PV4114).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

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