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Endoscopic grading of gastric intestinal metaplasia on risk assessment for early gastric neoplasia: can we replace histology assessment also in the West?

Abstract

Objectives To assess the value of endoscopic grading of gastric intestinal metaplasia (EGGIM), operative link on gastritis assessment (OLGA) and operative link on gastric intestinal metaplasia (OLGIM) on risk stratification for early gastric neoplasia (EGN) and to investigate other factors possibly associated with its development.

Design Single centre, case–control study including 187 patients with EGN treated endoscopically and 187 age-matched and sex-matched control subjects. Individuals were classified according to EGGIM, OLGA and OLGIM systems. EGN risk according to gastritis stages and other clinical parameters was further evaluated.

Results More patients with EGN had EGGIM of ≥5 than control subjects (68.6% vs 13.3%, p<0.001). OLGA and OLGIM stages III/IV were more prevalent in patients with EGN than in control subjects (68% vs 11%, p<0.001, and 61% vs 3%, p<0.001, respectively). The three systems were the only parameters significantly related to the risk of EGN in multivariate analysis: for EGGIM 1–4 (adjusted OR (AOR) 12.9, 95% CI 1.4 to 118.6) and EGGIM 5–10 (AOR 21.2, 95% CI 5.0 to 90.2); for OLGA I/II (AOR 5.0, 95% CI 0.56 to 44.5) and OLGA III/IV (AOR 11.1, 95% CI 3.7 to 33.1); for OLGIM I/II (AOR 11.5, 95% CI 4.1 to 32.3) and OLGIM III/IV (AOR 16.0, 95% CI 7.6 to 33.4).

Conclusion This study confirms the role of histological assessment as an independent risk factor for gastric cancer (GC), but it is the first study to show that an endoscopic classification of gastric intestinal metaplasia is highly associated with that outcome. After further prospective validation, this classification may be appropriate for GC risk stratification and may simplify every day practice by reducing the need for biopsies.

  • gastritis
  • endoscopy
  • gastric cancer
  • gastric intestinal metaplasia
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