Table 2

APACHE II scoring system

Acute physiology score
High normal range Low normal range
Variable +4 +3 +2 +1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4
Temperature (°C)>4139–40.938.5–38.936–38.434–35.932–33.930–31.9<29.9
Mean arterial pressure (mm Hg)>160130–159110–12970–10950–69<49
Heart rate (ventricular; beats/min)>180140–179110–13970–10955–6940–54<39
Respiratory rate>5035–4925–3412–2410–116–9<5
Oxygenation (mm Hg)
AaDO2 when FiO2>0.5>500350–499200–349<200
PaO2when FiO2 <0.5PO2>70PO2 61–70PO255–60PO2 <55
Arterial pH>7.77.6–7.697.5–7.597.33–7.497.25–7.327.15–7.24<7.15
Serum Na (mmol/l)>180160–179155–159150–154130–149120–12911–119<110
Serum K (mmol/l)>76–6.95.5–5.93.5–5.43–3.42.5–2.9<2.5
Serum creatinine (mg/100 ml)
 Double score for ARF
Packed cell volume (%)>6050–59.946–49.930–45.920–29.9<20
While blood cell count (×103/mm3)>4020–39.915–19.93–14.91–2.9<1
Glasgow coma scale2-150
  • 2-150 Score = 15 − actual Glasgow coma scale.

  • The APACHE II score is given by the sum of the acute physiology score, the age (in years) points, and the chronic health points. Age points are assigned as follows: 0, <44; 2, 45–54; 3, 55–64; 5, 65–74; and 6, >75. Chronic health points are assigned if the patient has a history of severe organ system insufficiency or is immunocompromised, as follows: 5, non-operative or emergency postoperative patients; 2, elective postoperative patients. Organ insufficiency or an immunocompromised state must have been evident before admission to hospital and must conform to the following criteria:liver, biopsy confirmed cirrhosis and documented portal hypertension, episodes of past upper gastrointestinal bleeding attributed to portal hypertension, or prior episodes of hepatic failure/encephalopathy/coma; cardiovascular, New York Heart Association Class IV (that is, symptoms of angina or cardiac insufficiency at rest or during minimal exertion);respiratory, chronic restrictive, obstructive, or vascular disease resulting in severe exercise restriction—that is, unable to climb stairs or perform household duties, or documented chronic hypoxia, hypercapnia, secondary polycythaemia, severe pulmonary hypertension (>40 mm Hg), or respirator dependency;renal, receiving chronic dialysis; andimmunocompromised, the patient has received treatment that suppresses resistance to infection—for example, immunosuppression, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, long term, high dose steroids, or has a disease that is sufficiently advanced to suppress resistance to infection, such as leukaemia, lymphoma, AIDS. AaDO2, alveolar–arterial oxygen difference; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; ARF, acute renal failure.