Table 1

Cases of needle track seeding in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

ReferenceSex/ageTreatmentDeath after diagnosisRecurrence siteDiameter of primary tumourNeedle sizeTime between FNAB and recurrencePuncture
Puncture frequency
Nakamuta and colleagues12 F/63PEITSubcutis2 cm21 G5 monthsDiagnostic
Cedrone and colleagues13 M/64PEIT19 monthsAbdominal wall3.2 cm20–22 G6 monthsDiagnostic/therapeutic10
Evans and M/70ResectionWhole needle track12 monthsDiagnostic
 colleagues14 M/64HemihepatectomySubcutis4 yearsDiagnostic
Quaghebeur and colleagues15 M/40Inoperable because of recurrence3 monthsChest wall9 cmTru-cut?3 weeksDiagnostic
John and colleagues16 M/71Inoperable because of recurrence3 monthsAbdominal muscle10 cm18 G2 monthsDiagnostic2
Park and colleagues17 M/67TCESubcutis abdominal wall9 cm20 G4 monthsDiagnostic
Onodera and colleagues18 F/38TAESubcutis abdominal wall4 cm22 G3 monthsDiagnostic1
Sakurai and colleagues19 M/62TCE/TAE/lobectomySubcutis abdominal wall4.3 cmTru-cut?8 monthsDiagnostic
Yamada and colleagues20 F/74SegmentectomySubcutis1.5 cm21 G13 monthsDiagnostic2
Isobe and colleagues21 F/47Left hemihepatectomy9 monthsSubcutis22 G9 monthsDiagnostic2
Herszenyi and colleagues22 Subcutis20 GDiagnostic1
Jourdan and colleagues23 M/34Left hemihepatectomy3 yearsIntrahepatic5 cm>20 G6 monthsDiagnostic2
Andersson and colleagues9 M/62Inoperable11 monthsSubcutis, needle track1 monthDiagnostic
Current studyF/36HemihepatectomyAbdominal wall2 cm18 G4 yearsDiagnostic
  • PEIT, percutaneous ethanol injection therapy; TCE, transcatheter embolisation; TAE, transarterial embolisation; G, gauge.