Table 2

Association of body mass index (BMI)2-150 at the time of maximum adult weight, 20 years before the interview, and at age 20, with risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux2-151. Age and sex adjusted, and multivariately2-152 adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)

No with/ without refluxAge and sex adjusted OR (95% CI)Multivariately adjusted OR
(95% CI)
Maximum BMI
 BMI <2550/2501.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 BMI 25–30 (overweight)63/3280.94 (0.62–1.42)0.95 (0.62–1.44)
 BMI >30 (obesity)22/1031.06 (0.61–1.86)1.13 (0.64–2.01)
 BMI as continuous variable135/6851.00 (0.95–1.06)2-153 1.01 (0.95–1.07)2-153
BMI 20 years before interview
 BMI <2594/4791.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 BMI ⩾25 (overweight or obesity)41/2020.98 (0.65–1.49)1.01 (0.67–1.54)
 BMI as continuous variable135/6851.02 (0.95–1.09)2-153 1.03 (0.96–1.10)2-153
BMI at age 20
 BMI <25125/5981.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
 BMI ⩾25 (overweight or obesity)10/830.55 (0.27–1.09)0.54 (0.27–1.09)
 BMI as continuous variable135/6851.00 (0.93–1.08)2-153 1.00 (0.93–1.09)2-153
  • 2-150 Body mass index was calculated as body weight divided by the square of body height in metres (kg/m2).

  • 2-151 Gastro-oesophageal reflux was defined as recurrent and regular heartburn and/or regurgitation occurring at least once a week.

  • 2-152 Adjustments were made for age, sex, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, meal sizes, and physical activity.

  • 2-153 Odds ratio per unit increase in BMI.