Table 3

Manometric features of named oesophageal motility abnormalities

Basal LOSP LOS relaxation Wave progression Distal wave amplitude
AchalasiaUsually high, may be normal, rarely lowIncompleteSimultaneous or absent, no peristalsisLow or normal
Atypical disorders of LOS relaxationLow, normal, or highInadequate (incomplete or short duration)Some normal peristalsis, may have simultaneous or absent sequencesLow, normal, or high
Isolated hypertensive LOSHighCompleteNormalNormal
Diffuse oesophageal spasmLow, normal, or highCompleteSimultaneous in >10% of swallowsNormal or high
Nutcracker oesophagusLow, normal, or highCompleteNormalHigh
Ineffective oesophageal motilityLow or normalCompleteNormal, simultaneous, or absentLow in ⩾30% of wet swallows
  • LOSP, lower oesophageal sphincter pressure; LOS, lower oesophageal sphincter.