Table 1

Risk evaluation for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) toxicity

• Age and sex
• Disease for which NSAID is indicated
• Disease severity
• Comorbidity
• Previous gastrointestinal ulcers, bleeding, or perforation
• Previous antiulcer drug use
• Symptoms with previous NSAID
• Dose, type, and duration of NSAID therapy
• Co-therapy with anticoagulants, corticosteroids, or aspirin
• Perioperative use
• Use of over the counter medication
  • Data from McCarthy DM. Clin Perspect Gastroenterol 1999;2:219–26.