Table 1

Univariate analysis: clinical and endoscopic factors related to failure of dual endoscopic therapy

Permanent haemostasis (n=1034)Failure (n=110)Univariate p value
Values are number (%) unless otherwise stated.
H2B, H2 blockers; PPI, proton pump inhibitors; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
*Significant factor.
Clinical variables
    Age (y)* (mean (SD)) 62.1 (17.7)65.8 (16.0) 0.036*
    Sex (male)714 (69.1)82 (74.5) 0.235
    Symptom—haematemesis*150 (14.5)24 (21.8) 0.042*
    Associated medical illness281 (27.1)29 (26.4) 0.855
    Ulcer history425 (41.1)41 (37.3) 0.119
    H2B/PPI 65 (6.3) 8 (7.3) 0.688
    NSAID/aspirin323 (31.2)26 (23.6) 0.105
    Shock* (systolic BP <100 mm Hg)147 (14.2)35 (31.8)<0.001*
    Hb level (g/dl)* (mean (SD)) 9.9 (4.7) 8.5 (2.8)<0.001*
    Hb level <10 g/dl*565 (54.8)80 (74.1)<0.001*
Endoscopic findings
    Ulcer size ≥2 cm208 (20.1)36 (32.7) 0.002*
    Active bleeding ulcer (Forrest grade I —spurter/oozing)516 (49.9)71 (64.5) 0.003*
    Fresh blood/clots in stomach*231 (22.3)50 (45.5)<0.001*
    Ulcer types
        Gastric ulcer380 (36.5)45 (40.9) 0.029*
        Duodenal ulcer611 (59.1)55 (50.0)
        Stomal ulcer * 43 (4.2 )10 (9.1)