Table 1

Prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in chronic liver disease

Disease typenCirrhotic (%)Type of assessmentOsteoporosisFractureReference
Osteoporosis is defined as T score <−2.5 except for: *defined as fracture threshold below 0.85 g/cm2; **defined as z score <−2.
ALD, alcoholic liver disease; PBC, primary biliary cirrhosis; PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis; BMD-LS, bone mineral density in lumbar spine.
Alcoholics17BMD-LS23%Feitelberg 198731
ALD10BMD-LS 0%Laitinen 199336
PBC33Iliac crest biopsy 0%Mitchison 198822
PBC5545BMD-LSVan-Berkum 199014
PBC20Iliac crest biopsy35%Guanabens 199018
PBC210BMD-LS13%**Eastell 199116
PBC88BMD-LS35%*Lindor 199515
PSC8123BMD-LS17%3%Angulo 199823
Viral74100BMD-LS20%**7%Chen 199612
Viral32100BMD-LS53%**Gallego-Rojo 19986
Mixed11552BMD-LS16%**12–18%Diamond 198927
Mixed133BMD-LS26%**Bonkovsky 199025
Mixed58100BMD-LS43%**Monegal 199713
Mixed3253BMD-LS28%Sinigaglia 199728