Table 1

Established and putative neurotransmitters in the enteric nervous system

*Neurotransmitter status established.
†Probable neurotransmitter.
Amines
Acetylcholine *
Noradrenaline*
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)
Amino acid
γ aminobutryic acid (GABA)*
Purine
ATP
Gases
Nitric oxide (NO)*
Carbon monoxide
Peptides
Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP)†
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)†
Neurotensin
Opioids
Peptide YY (PYY)
Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP)
Somatostatin
Substance P*
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)*