Table 3

Release of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by inflamed ileal mucosa from Crohn’s disease patients in coculture experiments with either viable or heat killed bacteria

TNF-α (pg/ml)
*p<0.05 versus blank; †p<0.05 versus viable bacteria.
Data are mean (SEM) of 4–6 organ culture experiments per point.
Blank107 (28.9)
L casei
    Viable 8 (3.6)*
    Heat killed 60 (9.6)†
L bulgaricus
    Viable 30 (9.3)*
    Heat killed 50 (18.6)