Table 1

Gene array analysis and in situ hybridisation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) genes in day 4 human fetal gut explant cultures

Gene array analysisIn situ hybridisation*
MMPPWM (fold change v controls)αCD3+IL-12 (fold change v controls)Performed in this studyControlPWMαCD3+IL-12
The gene arrays detected MMP and TIMP genes in day 4 cultured explants, the fold change over control were quantified by computer.
*In situ hybridisation signal was evaluated using dark field microscopy.
Signal strength was assessed as follows: −, no detectable specific signal; +, specific signal in few cells; ++, specific signal in moderate number of cells; +++, specific signal in a high number of cells
†In situ hybridisation data were shown in our previous study.17
ND, not determined; PWM, pokeweed mitogen; IL-12, interleukin-12.
Collagenase 1 (MMP-1)†3.82.6Yes++++
Gelatinase A (MMP-2)−1.11.6NoNDNDND
Stromelysin 1 (MMP-3)†8.25.7Yes++++++
Matrilysin (MMP-7)−1.9−2.0Yes+++
Neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8)−1.41.0NoNDNDND
Gelatinase B (MMP-9)6.25.5NoNDNDND
Stromelysin 2 (MMP-10)4.02.6Yes+++++
Stromelysin 3 (MMP-11)−1.11.1NoNDNDND
Macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12)11.97.3Yes++++++
Collagenase 3 (MMP13)1.21.5Yes+
MT1-MMP (MMP-14)−1.0−1.2Yes+++
MT2-MMP (MMP-15)−1.4−1.0NoNDNDND
MT3-MMP (MMP-16)−1.7−1.4NoNDNDND
MT4-MMP (MMP-17)1.72.7NoNDNDND