Table 3

Hypovolaemic shock: symptoms, signs, and fluid replacement

Adapted from Grenvick A, Ayres SM, Holbrook PR, et al. Textbook of critical care, 4th edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 40–5.
Blood loss (ml)<750750–15001500–2000>2000
Blood loss (%bv)<15%15–30%30–40%<40%
Pulse rate<100>100>120>140
Blood pressureNormalNormalDecreasedDecreased
Pulse pressureNormal or increasedDecreasedDecreasedDecreased
Respiratory rate14–2020–3030–40>35
Urine output>3020–3030–40>35
Mental statusSlightly anxiousMildly anxiousAnxious and confusedConfused and lethargic
Fluid replacementCrystalloidCrystalloidCrystalloid and bloodCrystalloid blood