Table 1

Eleven year cumulated incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in 1994 by categories of baseline exposures: Helicobacter pylori infection and lifestyle practices. Unadjusted and sex and age adjusted odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI))

Baseline exposure (reference category)PUD incidenceUnadjustedSex and age adjusted
%nOdds ratio95% CIOdds ratio95% CI
Data for cigar, cheroot, and pipe smokers are not shown as there were very few ulcer cases in these subgroups.
*In former and current smokers.
Anti-Hp IgG sero-status
Anti-Hp changes within the observation period
    (Persistently seronegative)1.112861.01.0
    Persistently borderline3.03052.81.2;;6.3
    Persistently seropositive4.14593.92.0;;7.6
    Changes in anti-Hp infection status5.03434.72.3;;9.5
Cumulative tobacco consumption
    (Never smoker)1.06911.01.0
    Former smoker2.14822.10.8;;5.6
    1–14.99 g/day4.05964.11.8;;10.3
    15–24.99 g/day4.35354.41.8;;12.0
    ≥25 g/day4.81264.91.6;;18.0
Cumulative number of cigarettes smoked daily*
    1–9 cigarettes2.73741.40.7;;3.2
    10–14 cigarettes2.73691.40.7;;3.5
    15–20 cigarettes5.05562.11.1;;4.5
    ≥21 cigarettes6.71353.71.6;;9.9
Wine (weekly consumption)
    (Never drink wine)4.26901.01.0
    1–3 glasses of wine2.211120.50.3;;0.9
    ≥ 4 glasses of wine2.76280.60.3;;1.2
Spirits (weekly consumption)
    (Never drink spirits)2.812751.01.0
    1–2 glasses of spirits2.77840.90.6;;1.6
    ≥3 glasses of spirits3.53711.30.7;;2.3
Beer (weekly consumption)
    (Never drink beer)3.47111.01.0
    1–2 beers2.87030.80.5;;1.6
    3–6 beers2.05030.60.3;;1.3
    7–10 beeers2.22230.70.2;;1.8
    ≥11 beers3.82901.10.5;;2.6
Cumulative number of drinks (weekly consumption)
    (0–2 drinks)3.46701.01.0
    3–5 drinks2.85670.80.4;;1.6
    6–12 drinks1.76500.50.2;;1.0
    ≥13 drinks3.75491.10.6;;2.6
Tea (cups taken daily)
Coffee (cups taken daily)
Leisure time energy expenditure