Table 1

Eleven year cumulated incidence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in 1994 by categories of baseline exposures: Helicobacter pylori infection and lifestyle practices. Unadjusted and sex and age adjusted odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI))

Baseline exposure (reference category)PUD incidenceUnadjustedSex and age adjusted
%nOdds ratio95% CIOdds ratio95% CI
Data for cigar, cheroot, and pipe smokers are not shown as there were very few ulcer cases in these subgroups.
*In former and current smokers.
Anti-Hp IgG sero-status
    (Seronegative)1.314121.01.0
    Borderline5.74564.72.5;8.64.52.4;8.3
    Seropositive4.75483.93.9;7.13.61.9;6.7
Anti-Hp changes within the observation period
    (Persistently seronegative)1.112861.01.0
    Persistently borderline3.03052.81.2;6.42.71.1;6.3
    Persistently seropositive4.14593.92.0;7.93.71.8;7.6
    Changes in anti-Hp infection status5.03434.72.3;9.74.62.2;9.5
Cumulative tobacco consumption
    (Never smoker)1.06911.01.0
    Former smoker2.14822.10.8;5.52.10.8;5.6
    1–14.99 g/day4.05964.11.8;9.64.41.9;10.3
    15–24.99 g/day4.35354.41.8;10.25.12.1;12.0
    ≥25 g/day4.81264.91.6;14.85.91.8;18.0
Cumulative number of cigarettes smoked daily*
    (0)1.99961.01.0
    1–9 cigarettes2.73741.40.7;3.11.50.7;3.2
    10–14 cigarettes2.73691.40.7;3.11.60.7;3.5
    15–20 cigarettes5.05562.11.1;3.92.41.3;4.5
    ≥21 cigarettes6.71353.71.6;8.34.31.9;9.9
Wine (weekly consumption)
    (Never drink wine)4.26901.01.0
    1–3 glasses of wine2.211120.50.3;0.90.50.3;0.9
    ≥ 4 glasses of wine2.76280.60.3;1.20.60.3;1.2
Spirits (weekly consumption)
    (Never drink spirits)2.812751.01.0
    1–2 glasses of spirits2.77840.90.6;1.60.90.5;1.6
    ≥3 glasses of spirits3.53711.30.7;2.41.20.6;2.3
Beer (weekly consumption)
    (Never drink beer)3.47111.01.0
    1–2 beers2.87030.80.5;1.50.80.4;1.6
    3–6 beers2.05030.60.3;1.20.60.3;1.3
    7–10 beeers2.22230.70.2;1.70.60.2;1.8
    ≥11 beers3.82901.10.5;2.31.10.5;2.6
Cumulative number of drinks (weekly consumption)
    (0–2 drinks)3.46701.01.0
    3–5 drinks2.85670.80.4;1.60.80.4;1.6
    6–12 drinks1.76500.50.2;1.00.50.2;1.0
    ≥13 drinks3.75491.10.6;2.01.10.5;2.6
Tea (cups taken daily)
    (0)3.212401.01.0
    1–22.56710.80.4;1.40.80.4;1.4
    ≥32.55190.80.4;1.50.80.4;1.5
Coffee (cups taken daily)
    (0–3)2.97321.01.0
    4–52.16210.70.4;1.50.70.4;1.4
    6–82.86791.00.5;1.81.00.5;1.8
    ≥94.33981.50.8;2.91.60.8;3.0
Leisure time energy expenditure
    (Sedentary)4.45891.01.0
    Ambulatory2.312940.50.3;0.90.50.3;0.9
    Active2.65470.60.3;1.10.50.3;1.1