Table 3

Distribution of risk factors for exposure to newer NSAIDs and older non-specific NSAIDs

Newer NSAIDs
Risk factorCoxibsMeloxicamOlder non-specific NSAIDs
NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; UHDs, ulcer healing drugs; OA, osteoarthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; CCB, calcium channel blockers; GP, general practitioner.
p<0.001 for channelling bias (newer v older NSAIDs) averaged over all practices for all factors in a random effects models. p<0.001 for heterogeneity between GP practices for all factors except recent history of sprain or strain.
Age (y)63.962.159.8
Male (%)29.231.938.3
Moderate or heavy drinker (%)
Moderate or heavy smoker (%)
Recent endoscopy (%)
Recently diagnosed gastric event (%)
History of H2 antagonist use (%)42.434.914.6
History of PPI use (%)35.923.54.9
History of misoprostol use (%)
Recently diagnosed dyspepsia (%)
Recent use of antacids (%)
Recent use of UHDs (%)23.419.48.1
% of prior 6 months exposed to UHDs2.12.31.9
Any history of dyspepsia (%)17.512.76.1
Any history of gastrointestinal events (%)35.225.811.7
Recent use of local anaesthetics (%)
OA patients (%)34.330.519.8
Recently diagnosed OA (%)
RA patients (%)10.411.77.1
Recently diagnosed RA (%)
Exposure initiated after recent back pain (%)
Exposure initiated after a recent sprain or strain (%)
Repeat NSAID users (%)93.592.681.0
% of prior 6 months exposed to NSAIDs2.12.31.9
No of GP contacts in prior 6 months1.81.61.1
Recent use of nitrates and CCBs (%)12.411.89.1
Recent use of corticosteroids (%)
Recent use of anticoagulants (%)