Table 2

 Univariate analysis of potential risk factors for choledochal complications

Risk factorAll patientsPatients with complicationsp Value
ERCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; ES, endoscopic sphincterotomy.
Age ⩽70 y (yes/no)40/4411/190.134
Sex (male/female)37/4713/170.922
Interval between initial ES and repeat ERCP ⩽5 y (yes/no)43/4120/100.034
Bile duct diameter ⩾15 mm (yes/no)49/3522/80.035
Bile duct stone diameter ⩾15 mm (yes/no)38/4618/120.043
Bile duct stone number ⩾5 (yes/no)30/5414/160.118
Previous cholecystectomy (yes/no)62/2222/80.941
Previous duct exploration (yes/no)50/3417/130.691
Gall bladder stones (yes/no)11/115/30.375
Periampullary diverticulum (yes/no)33/5116/140.043
Previous or present cholangitis (yes/no)48/3617/130.948
Pneumobilia (yes/no)59/2520/100.594
No visible evidence of prior sphincterotomy (yes/no)49/3517/130.817
Re-sphincterotomy (yes/no)69/1524/60.702
Mechanical lithotripsy (yes/no)50/3422/80.051