Table 1

 Secondary oesophageal motor disorders and manometric findings

DisorderManometric findings
LOS, lower oesophageal sphincter.
DiabetesLow amplitude bipeaked contractions
Chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstructionRepetitive contractions, segmental loss of peristalsis
Scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosusLow LOS pressure and low amplitude simultaneous contractions in the distal two thirds of the oesophagus; proximal oesophagus may have normal contractions
Secondary achalasia, Chagas diseaseEvidence of systemic disease, neoplasm cardiomyopathy, megacolon, and megaureter
Amyloidosis, alcoholism, myxoedma, and multiple sclerosisLow amplitude contractions in the distal oesophagus