Table 2

 Tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and risk of symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux

CasesControlsOR95% CIOR95% CI
*In the multivariate logistic regression model adjustments were made for age, sex, body mass index, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, coffee use, and asthma medication. Tea drinking, table salt intake, dietary fibre in bread, and physical exercise were tested in the model, but omitted from the final model because they did not contribute significantly to the explained variance.
†Tobacco smoking and alcohol use variables represent exposure previous to reflux outcome assessment.
OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
Tobacco smoking†
    Daily smoking (years)
    p Value for linear trend<0.0001
    Lifetime number of cigarettes smoked (thousands)
    p Value for linear trend<0.0001
Alcohol use†
    Occasions of spirits, wine, or beer consumption during last two weeks
    p Value for linear trend0.54