Table 3

 Dietary factors and risk of symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux

NumberUnivariateMultivariate*
CasesControlsOR95% CIOR95% CI
*In the multivariate logistic regression model adjustments were made for age, sex, body mass index, tobacco smoking, coffee use, tea use, table salt intake, and dietary fibres in bread. Alcohol use, physical exercise, and asthma medication were tested in the model, but omitted from the final model since they did not contribute significantly to the explained variance.
†Data on exposure to coffee, tea, and dietary fibre in bread are of cross sectional nature.
‡Table salt data were prospectively collected and represent exposure previous to reflux outcome assessment.
OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
Coffee use†
    Cups per day
        <129939551.0(reference)1.0(reference)
        1–3860107291.1(0.9–1.2)0.7(0.6–0.9)
        4–71304181061.0(0.8–1.1)0.5(0.4–0.6)
        >759363681.2(1.1–1.4)0.6(0.4–0.7)
    p Value for linear trend<0.0001
Tea use†
    Cups per day
        <1812105271.0(reference)1.0(reference)
        1–3880117501.0(0.9–1.1)1.0(0.8–1.1)
        >313913651.3(1.1–1.6)1.1(0.9–1.5)
    p Value for linear trend0.20
Table salt use‡
    Meals of salted fish or meat
        Never30840571.0(reference)1.0(reference)
        <3/month59377461.0(0.9–1.2)1.0(0.9–1.2)
        Once/week57468391.1(1.0–1.3)1.1(1.0–1.3)
        Twice/week35934801.4(1.2–1.6)1.3(1.1–1.5)
        > Twice/week16813671.6(1.3–2.0)1.5(1.2–1.8)
        p Value for linear trend0.0007
    Extra salt on regular meals
        Never905111541.0(reference)1.0(reference)
        Sometimes71788281.0(0.9–1.1)1.1(1.0–1.2)
        Often23223391.2(1.1–1.4)1.4(1.2–1.6)
        Always14612411.4(1·2–1.7)1.7(1.4–2.0)
        p Value for linear trend<0.0001
Dietary fibres in bread†
    Dry weight % dietary fibres in bread predominantly consumed
        1–2 (white, low fibre)17713181.0(reference)1.0(reference)
        4–7 (medium fibre)1055120590.7(0.6–0.8)0.7(0.6–0.9)
        6–10 (high fibre)921137470.5(0.5–0.7)0.5(0.4–0.7)
        14–16 (hard bread)52067420.6(0.4–0.6)0.5(0.4–0.7)
    p Value for linear trend<0.0001