Table 3

Studies investigating the role of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) organs in induction of intestinal tolerance and immunity

Animals usedGALT organ defect*Defect in other lymphoid organsEffect on oral tolerance/immunisationReference
CT, cholera toxin; MLN, mesenteric lymph node; Lp, lamina propria; LTα/β, -R, lymphotoxin α/β, -receptor; OT, oral tolerance; PP, Peyer’s patch; TCRα−/−, T cell receptor α chain gene deficient mice; TNF, tumour necrosis factor
*w, with; w/o, without.
†Absence of marginal zones.
‡Induction of PP defect by gestational treatment with LTβRIgG.
§Induction of PP/MLN defect by gestational treatment with LTβRIgG and TNFRIgG.
¶Absence of primary B cell follicles, marginal zones, germinal centre, follicular dendritic cells.
**Reconstitution of MLN by gestational treatment of LTα−/− mice with agonistic anti-LTβR-antibodies.
γδ T cells depletedIEL w/o γδ T cellsGeneral down modulation of γδ TCROT abrogated 71, 72
TCR-δ-chain−/−IEL w/o γδ T cellsGeneral absence of γδ T cellsLow dose OT abrogated, high dose OT intact 73
µMT miceLack of PP, lack of Lp B cellsGeneral absence of B cellsOT intact 46
TNFα−/−Small PPSpleen†OT intact 74
PP null ratsSurgical removal of PPOT intact 75
PP null/MLN+ mice‡Lack of PPOT to hapten intact 76
OT to low and high dose OVA intact 74, 77
OT to OVA abrogated 76
Oral immunisation with CT/OVA intact 106
PP/MLN null mice§Lack of PP and MLNLack of all LNOT abrogated 77
LTβ−/−Lack of PP, MLN present. Lack of Lp B cellsAbsence of peripheral LNOT intact 74
LTα+/−LTβ+/−Lack of PP, MLN presentAbsence of peripheral LNOT intact 74
LTα−/−/TNFα/LTα−/−PP−, MLN−, lack of Lp B cellsSpleen¶, absence of all LNOT abrogated 74
LTα−/− w MLN reconstituted**PP–, MLN +Spleen¶, absence of all LN except MLNOT restored 77