Table 2

Prevalence estimates for gastrointestinal (GI) diagnosis according to GI (non-alarm) symptoms, GI history, and non-GI risk factors

Lower GI illness v IBSUpper GI illness v FD
Lower GI illness (%)IBS (%)Upper GI illness (%)FD (%)
IBS, irritable bowel syndrome; FD, functional dyspepsia.
*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.
Abdominal pain
    Upper abdominal pain37.962.6***66.188.6***
    Lower abdominal pain66.779.9*33.531.4
    Pain history >2 y36.456.5**39.437.1
    Pain >6 times/year66.793.9***64.582.9**
    Intermittent pain40.946.742.648.6
    Pain lasting >30 min48.576.6***54.267.1
    Pain before meals10.617.822.330.0
    Pain <30 min after meals18.228.524.728.6
    Pain >30 min after meals37.942.138.641.4
    Radiating outside belly15.243.0***27.540.0*
Pain relieved by
    Bowel movement33.355.1**26.724.3
Pain made worse by
    Food or milk28.840.228.740.0
Pain associated with:
    More bowel movements37.950.922.321.4
    Looser bowel movements30.350.0**24.324.3
Bowel symptoms
    Mucus per rectum34.835.515.115.7
    <3 movements weekly12.112.68.412.9
    >3 movements daily34.830.817.112.9
    Straining on defecation40.946.735.130.0
    Loose/watery stools51.554.729.927.1
    Hard/lumpy stools34.841.633.140.0
    Incomplete evacuation57.672.4*48.241.4
Other GI risk factors
    Abdominal surgery48.561.757.454.3
    Childhood history12.126.6**15.118.6
Other risk factors
    Current smoker19.724.817.522.9
    Alcohol use (any)69.753.7**59.858.6
    Aspirin use (any)27.319.633.111.4***
    Paracetamol use9.119.6*66.178.6*