Table 3

 Detection of the presence of T cell stimulatory epitopes by the new assays for α- and γ-gliadins and by a commercially available gluten detection kit28 in 40% aqueous ethanol extracts of commercial starch controls28 and various food products. Gliadin levels were calculated using the European gliadin reference IRMM-48026 as standard

Sample NoContentGlia-α2/9 (μg/g) ppmGlia-γ1 (μg/g) ppmGliadin content detected by commercial ELISA28 (μg/g) ppm
Low starch<0.016% gluten28 (≈<80 ppm of gliadin)17<75
Medium starch0.02–0.04% gluten28 (≈100–200 ppm of gliadin)1078373
High starch>0.1% gluten28 (≈>500 ppm of gliadin)889421>1250
2Wheat starch120<75
4Wheat flour1851227
11Modified starch962301>1250
12Wheat flour1180612593>1250
13Modified starch1337<75
14Modified starch205<75
15Modified starch (maize)nd13<75
16Wheat flour154017091711
18Malt aroma15259<150