Table 10

 Molecular methods for Helicobacter pylori testing of clarithromycin resistance

Based on amplification of 23S rRNA gene
    - Sequencing
    - RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism)131,132
    - OLA (oligonucleotide ligation assay)133
    - DEIA (DNA enzyme immunoassay)134,135
    - PHFA (preferential homoduplex formation assay)136
    - INNO-LiPA (line probe assay)137
    - Mismatch PCR138
    - DG-DGGE (double gradient-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis)139
    - FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer)140–144
Based on hybridisation
    - FISH assay (fluorescence in situ hybridisation assay)145