Table 1

 Primary resistance of Helicobacter pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, and amoxicillin in adults in different parts of the world

CountryYearsType of studyMethod of testingNo of strains testedClariR global prevalence (%)95% CIMetroR global prevalence (%)95% CITetraR global prevalence (%)AmoxiR global prevalence (%)Reference
Data from studies including more than 100 strains published during the last five years.
*Includes 42 children.
†Transient resistance was observed in 19% of the strains.
‡Clarithromycin susceptibility performed on 812 strains only.
DD, disk diffusion method; AD, agar dilution method; BD, broth dilution method; ND, not determined; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; C, centre.
ClariR, clarithromycin resistant; MetroR, metronidazole resistant; TetraR, tetracycline resistant; AmoxiR, amoxicillin resistant.
Europe
    Bulgaria96–98TriCDD103*8.74.1–15.9NDNDNDBoyanova10
    Croatia2001MonoCEtest19684.7–12.93326.6–4.02ND0Bago11
    France96–99MultiCAD6591512.4–18.031.528.0–35.3ND0Mégraud12
    Germany95–00MonoCEtest16442.21.5–3.026.224.1–28.400Wolle13
    Germany95–96MultiCEtest18841.9–8.23225.3–39.1NDNDDammann14
    Italy (Central)98–02MonoCAD40623.419.4–27.836.732.0–41.6ND0.2Toracchio15
    Italy (North)99MultiCEtest1671.80.4–5.214.99.9–21.3ND0Pilotto16
    Netherlands97–98MultiCEtest2311.70–3.421.216.1–27.100Debets-Ossenkopp17
    Portugal90–99TriCEtest1322215.2–30.034.126.1–42.800Cabrita18
    Spain95–98MonoCEtest23512.98.7–17.723.518.1–29.30.70Cuchi Burgos19
    Sweden97–98MultiCAD2032.91.1–6.326.120.2–32.6ND0Mégraud20
    UK94–99MonoCDD10644.4‡3.3–5.840.337.4–43.30.50Parsons21
    UK95–98MonoC8433.92.7–5.53632.7–39.3ND0.4Teare22
North America
    Mexico95–97MonoCEtest1442518.2–32.976.368.6–83.1ND0†Torres23
    USA93–99MultiCAD343910.69.6–11.721.620.2–23.0ND0.08Osato24
    USA98–99MultiCAD422129.1–15.6NDND0Laine25
    USA00–01MultiCAD10612.26.7–20.033.925.0–43.8NDNDLaine26
South America
    Brazil96–00AD2039.86.1–14.85346.1–60.2NDNDPrazeres-Magalhaes27
Middle East
    Iran02BiCDD1201710.5–24.6NDNDNDMohammadi28
    Israel00–01MonoCEtest1108.23.8–15.038.229.1–47.900.9Samra29
Far East
    Hong Kong97–01MonoCDD9914.53.3–6.02926.3–32.00.50.3Ling30
    Japan95–00MonoCAD593118.6–13.896.8–11.5ND0.3Perez Aldana31
    Japan96–99BiCAD38812.99.7–16.612.49.3–16.1ND0Kato32
    Korea94–99BiCAD4565.93.9–8.540.636.0–45.25.30Kim33
    Korea96–00MonoCBD2245.42.8–9.241.935.4–48.7NDNDEun34
    Singapore93–96MonoC459ND62.758.1–67.2NDNDTeo35
    Singapore02MonoCAD120ND31.723.5–40.8NDNDLui36
    New Zealand93–98MonoCDD2256.83.8–10.83226.0–38.5NDNDFraser37