Table 2

 Comparison of dietary intake (measured by Block food frequency questionnaire 98) between participants with and without gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms defined as at least weekly heartburn or regurgitation (n = 371), and between participants with and without erosive oesophagitis (n = 164)

VariableGORD symptoms (n = 103)No GORD symptoms (n = 268)p ValueOesophageal erosion (n = 40)No erosion (n = 124)p Value
MeanSDMeanSDMeanSDMeanSD
p Values are based on t tests.
Total energy (kcal/day)193783417707860.072202392217456800.042
Macronutrients
    Total carbohydrates2451052261040.123241101222910.263
    Total protein (g/day)673163320.201733361280.027
    Total alcohol (g/day)92012240.372153511220.342
    Total fat (g/day)774068360.038844868310.017
    Total saturated fat (g/day)231220110.017241420100.065
    Cholesterol (mg/day)2311322021310.0972341362161320.326
    % Energy from carbohydrates508.050100.585499.0518.00.112
    % Energy from protein103.0103.00.744153.0143.00.161
    % Energy from fat407.0308.00.033367.0357.00.377
    Total fibre (g/1000 kcal)8.53.29.24.00.0979.03.19.04.00.962
Micronutrients (without supplements)
    Beta-carotene (μg/day)36193754356633940.89738112995338839300.533
    Lutein (mg/day)18401979198823260.56919871246190924770.848
    Vitamin C (mg/day)12575122860.72112065125890.741
    Vitamin E (mg/day)104950.369105940.191
    Folate (μg/day)3751693571780.3874031873471640.071
    Iron (mg/day)1361370.5731471260.189
    Sodium (mg/day)24571154228011610.18827211395225210200.023
    Calcium (mg/day)7353876813930.2327183126723720.483
Micronutrients (with supplements)
    Beta-carotene (μg/day)44504236493064260.48452175361470872300.683
    Lutein (mg/day)18401979198823260.56919871246190924770.848
    Vitamin C (mg/day)3293692633070.0834084042583070.014
    Vitamin E (mg/day)67100811450.393107146751460.235
    Folate (μg/day)5832985283050.1167003635213140.003
    Iron (mg/day)231623200.850231523210.925
    Sodium (mg/day)24571154228011610.18827211395225210200.023
    Calcium (mg/day)9205178715630.4479685098355540.181
Food groups
    Fruits (servings/day)1.30.91.41.00.3361.40.931.21.00.546
    Vegetables (servings/day)3.02.03.02.30.5973.42.53.02.40.206
    Meat (servings/day)2.01.02.01.20.5772.41.32.01.10.012
    Dairy (servings/day)1.01.01.00.90.1891.00.871.01.00.830
    Grains (servings/day)5.03.04.02.50.2375.03.34.02.30.104