Table 3

 Risk of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms with selected dietary items (measured by Block food frequency questionnaire 98)

Daily intakeOR95% CIp Value
Results of logistic regression analyses for the outcome of having at least weekly heartburn or regurgitation among all participants (n = 371).
Adjusted odds ratios were derived from logistic regression models. Odds ratios were scaled based on the interquartile range for each nutrient and thus show risk comparing the 75th centile of intake for each nutrient with the 25th centile.
OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index.
Macronutrients
Total carbohydrates (g/day)
    Unadjusted1.240.94–1.640.12
    Adjusted
        BMI1.140.86–1.520.37
        BMI, energy, demographics0.760.34–1.690.50
Total protein (g/day)
    Unadjusted1.190.91–1.570.20
    Adjusted
        BMI1.120.85–1.480.43
        BMI, energy, demographics0.870.48–1.570.65
Alcohol (% of calories)
    Unadjusted0.950.86–1.060.37
    Adjusted
        BMI0.980.89–1.090.73
        BMI, energy, demographics0.990.88–1.100.82
Total fat (g/day)
    Unadjusted1.331.01–1.740.04
    Adjusted
        BMI1.200.91–1.580.20
        BMI, energy, demographics1.090.89–1.370.41
Saturated fat (g/day)
    Unadjusted1.371.07–1.750.01
    Adjusted
        BMI1.970.23–6.190.21
        BMI, energy, demographics1.710.92–3.170.09
Cholesterol (mg/day)
    Unadjusted1.341.02–1.760.03
    Adjusted
        BMI1.220.92–1.610.18
        BMI, energy, demographics1.341.02–1.760.28
Total fibre (g/day)
    Unadjusted0.800.61–1.030.09
    Adjusted
        BMI0.810.62–1.070.13
        BMI, energy, demographics0.720.53–0.990.04
Micronutrients
Beta-carotene (mcg/day)
    Unadjusted1.010.84–1.220.90
    Adjusted
        BMI0.970.80–1.190.75
        BMI, energy, demographics0.860.67–1.110.26
Vitamin C (mg/day)
    Unadjusted1.040.82–1.320.72
    Adjusted
        BMI1.000.79–1.270.99
        BMI, energy, demographics0.870.65–1.160.33
Vitamin E (IU)
    Unadjusted1.130.86–1.490.37
    Adjusted
        BMI1.050.79–1.400.72
        BMI, energy, demographics0.770.47–1.260.30
Folate (μg/day)
    Unadjusted1.120.87–1.450.39
    Adjusted
        BMI1.070.82–1.400.60
        BMI, energy, demographics0.840.54–1.300.44
Sodium (mg/day)
    Unadjusted1.200.92–1. 570.19
    Adjusted
        BMI1.100.84–1.460.48
        BMI, energy, demographics0.760.38–1.520.44
Calcium (mg/day)
    Unadjusted1.180.90–1. 540.23
    Adjusted
        BMI1.190.91–1.570.20
        BMI, energy, demographics0.960.65–1.420.85
Food groups
Servings of fruit (No/day)
    Unadjusted0.850.62–1.180.34
    Adjusted
        BMI0.900.64–1.240.51
        BMI, energy, demographics0.770.54–1.100.14
Servings of vegetables (No/day)
    Unadjusted1.070.84–1.350.60
    Adjusted
        BMI1.010.79–1.300.91
        BMI, energy, demographics0.900.67–1.200.47
Servings of meat (No/day)
    Unadjusted1.080.82–1.420.58
    Adjusted
        BMI0.980.74–1.310.92
        BMI, energy, demographics0.800.51–1.250.33
Servings of dairy (g/day)
    Unadjusted1.190.92–1.550.19
    Adjusted
        BMI1.260.96–1.650.10
        BMI, energy, demographics1.090.79–1.510.58
Servings of grain (g/day)
    Unadjusted1.170.90–1.520.24
    Adjusted
        BMI1.140.88–1.480.35
        BMI, energy, demographics1.050.70–1.570.82
Fat servings (No/day)
    Unadjusted1.461.09–1.970.01
    Adjusted
        BMI1.411.04–1.910.03
        BMI, energy, demographics1.180.98–1.420.08