Table 4

 Comparison of demographic characteristics and risk factors among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with idiopathic disease with those with known risk factors (n = 2061)

Frequency of HCC patients with idiopathic disease (%) (n = 1229)Frequency of HCC patients with known risk factors (%) (n = 832)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Age at HCC diagnosis
    <75 y473 (38.5)449 (54.0)Reference
    ⩾75 y756 (61.5)383 (46.0)1.87 (1.57–2.24)<0.0001
Sex
    Female448 (36.5)261 (31.4)Reference
    Male781 (63.5)571 (68.6)0.80 (0.66–0.96)0.0172
Race
    White858 (69.8)509 (61.2)Reference
    Black121 (9.9)60 (7.2)1.20 (0.86–1.66)0.2840
    Hispanic48 (3.9)43 (5.2)0.66 (0.43–1.01)0.0564
    Asian117 (9.5)150 (18.0)0.46 (0.35–0.60)<0.0001
    Other85 (6.9)70 (8.4)0.72 (0.51–1.01)0.0541
Registry
    Atlanta (%)63 (61.8)39 (38.2)1.09 (0.73–1.65)0.6524
    Utah (%)40 (74.1)14 (25.9)1.97 (1.06–3.64)0.0284
    Connecticut (%)142 (64.0)80 (36.0)1.23 (0.92–1.64)0.1636
    Detroit (%)209 (63.5)120 (36.5)1.22 (0.95–1.55)0.1163
    Hawaii (%)58 (58.0)42 (42.0)0.93 (0.62–1.40)0.7332
    Iowa (%)121 (68.7)55 (31.3)1.54 (1.11–2.15)0.0099
    Los Angeles (%)239 (49.9)240 (50.1)0.60 (0.48–0.73)<0.0001
    New Mexico (%)67 (62.0)41 (38.0)1.11 (0.75–1.66)0.6006
    San Francisco (%)99 (44.4)124 (55.6)0.50 (0.38–0.66)<0.0001
    San Jose (%)48 (48.4)45 (51.6)0.71 (0.47–1.08)0.1068
    Seattle (%)118 (67.4)57 (32.6)1.44 (1.04–2.01)0.0280
Medicare/Medicaid dual enrolment301 (24.5)258 (31.0)0.72 (0.59–0.88)0.0011
Risk factors
    Diabetes504 (41.0)388 (46.6)0.80 (0.67–0.95)0.0114
    Obesity88 (7.2)58 (7.0)1.02 (0.73–1.45)0.8696
    Dyslipidaemia400 (32.5)287 (34.5)0.91 (0.76–1.10)0.3572
    Non-specific cirrhosis285 (23.2)72 (8.7)3.19 (2.42–4.20)<0.0001