Table 1

 Tumour-node-metastases (TNM) staging system for colorectal cancer (survival data from Greene and colleagues14)

UICC, International Union against Cancer.
UICC stage
IT1-2, N0, M0>90
IIAT3, N0, M060–85
IIBT4, N0, M0
IIIAT1–2, N1, M025–65
IIIBT3–4, N1, M0
IIICT (any), N2, M0
IVT (any), N (any), M15–7
T (Primary tumour)
TXPrimary tumour cannot be assessed
TisCarcinoma in situ
T1Tumour invades submucosa
T2Tumour invades muscularis propria
T3Tumour penetrates muscularis propria and invades subserosa
T4Tumour directly invades other organs or structures or perforates visceral peritoneum
N (Nodal status)
NXRegional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
N0No metastases in regional lymph nodes
N1Metastases in one to three regional lymph nodes
N2Metastases in four or more regional lymph nodes
M (Distant metastases)
MXPresence or absence cannot be determined
M0No distant metastases detected
M1Distant metastases detected