Table 2

 Associations between upper gastrointestinal disorders and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, gastric cardia, and gastric non-cardia, presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

ExposureControls (n (%))Oesophageal adenocarcinomaGastric cardia adenocarcinomaGastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
(n (%))OR (95% CI)*(n (%))OR (95% CI)*(n (%))OR (95% CI)*
*OR adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, gastro-oesophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer, and dyspepsia.
†Includes oesophageal ulcer and unspecified peptic ulcer.
GOR, gastro-oesophageal reflux; NA, Not applicable.
GOR symptoms
    Never9105 (91.0)244 (85.0)1.00 (reference)164 (84.1)1.00 (reference)292 (89.3)1.00 (reference)
    Ever895 (9.0)43 (15.0)1.67 (1.16–2.40)31 (15.9)1.51 (0.99–2.30)35 (10.7)1.00 (0.69–1.46)
Hiatal hernia
    No9490 (94.9)256 (89.2)1.00 (reference)179 (91.8)1.00 (reference)309 (94.5)1.00 (reference)
    Yes510 (5.1)31 (10.8)2.17 (1.44–3.27)16 (8.2)1.28 (0.75–2.22)18 (5.5)0.89 (0.54–1.47)
Peptic ulcer
    No9373 (93.7)258 (89.9)1.00 (reference)171 (87.7)1.00 (reference)280 (85.6)1.00 (reference)
    Gastric ulcer157 (1.6)7 (2.4)1.65 (0.76–3.56)7 (3.6)2.47 (1.14–5.38)16 (4.9)3.32 (1.95–5.65)
    Duodenal ulcer385 (3.8)18 (6.3)1.53 (0.93–2.51)13 (6.7)1.72 (0.96–3.06)24 (7.3)2.07 (1.34–3.19)
    Gastric + duodenal ulcer9 (0.1)0 (0.0)NA0 (0.0)NA5 (1.5)15.16 (4.97–46.26)
    Other peptic ulcer†76 (0.8)2 (0.7)0.90 (0.22–3.72)3 (1.5)2.12 (0.66–6.80)2 (0.6)0.84 (0.20–3.45)
Dyspepsia
    Never8193 (81.9)229 (79.8)1.00 (reference)136 (69.7)1.00 (reference)241 (73.7)1.00 (reference)
    Ever1807 (18.1)58 (20.2)0.90 (0.66–1.24)59 (30.3)1.70 (1.22–2.39)86 (26.3)1.44 (1.10–1.89)