Table 3

 Associations between use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or histamine2 receptor antagonists (H2 blockers) and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, gastric cardia, and gastric non-cardia, compared with non-users, presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

ExposureControls (n (%))Oesophageal adenocarcinomaGastric cardia adenocarcinomaGastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
(n (%))OR (95% CI)(n (%))OR (95% CI)(n (%))OR (95% CI)
*OR adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index.
†OR adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, gastro-oesophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer, and dyspepsia.
NA, Not applicable.
Use of PPI
    Never9387 (93.9)265 (92.3)1.00 (reference)173 (88.7)1.00 (reference)291 (89.0)1.00 (reference)
    Past214 (2.1)5 (1.7)0.81 (0.33–1.99)*8 (4.1)1.96 (0.94–4.07)*7 (2.1)1.02 (0.48–2.20)*
    Current (all durations)399 (4.0)17 (5.9)1.51 (0.91–2.50)* 0.84 (0.48–1.50)†14 (7.2)1.89 (1.08–3.32)* 1.06 (0.57–2.00)†29 (8.9)2.31 (1.55–3.44)* 1.75 (1.10–2.79)†
    Current <1 year246 (2.5)7 (2.4)1.05 (0.49–2.25)* 0.64 (0.28–1.42)†11 (5.6)2.51 (1.34–4.71)* 1.42 (0.72–2.81)†17 (5.2)2.17 (1.31–3.61)* 1.67 (0.96–2.90)†
    Current 1–3 years117 (1.2)8 (2.8)2.34 (1.12–4.89)* 1.22 (0.55–2.72)†3 (1.5)1.31 (0.41–4.21)* 0.72 (0.22–2.42)†8 (2.4)2.15 (1.03–4.47)* 1.61 (0.71–3.61)†
    Current >3 years36 (0.4)2 (0.7)1.78 (0.42–7.56)* 0.87 (0.20–3.87)†0 (0.0)NA4 (1.2)3.89 (1.36–11.1)* 2.95 (0.97–8.97)†
Use of H2 blockers
    Never8335 (83.4)220 (76.7)1.00 (reference)147 (75.4)1.00 (reference)245 (74.9)1.00 (reference)
    Past763 (7.6)31 (10.8)1.54 (1.04–2.26)*19 (9.7)1.39 (0.86–2.27)*29 (8.9)1.26 (0.85–1.87)*
    Current (all durations)902 (9.0)36 (12.5)1.55 (1.08–2.22)* 1.20 (0.78–1.84)†29 (14.9)1.85 (1.23–2.79)* 1.06 (0.65–1.72)†53 (16.2)1.96 (1.44–2.66)* 1.41 (0.97–2.05)†
    Current <1 year413 (4.1)10 (3.5)0.92 (0.48–1.75)* 0.75 (0.38–1.48)†18 (9.2)2.48 (1.50–4.10)* 1.43 (0.81–2.52)†31 (9.5)2.47 (1.67–3.64)* 1.91 (1.23–2.95)†
    Current 1–3 years221 (2.2)8 (2.8)1.42 (0.69–2.93)* 1.03 (0.48–2.21)†5 (2.6)1.30 (0.52–3.20)* 0.73 (0.28–1.88)†10 (3.1)1.53 (0.80–2.92)* 1.06 (0.53–2.12)†
    Current >3 years268 (2.7)18 (6.3)2.68 (1.62–4.42)* 2.10 (1.20–3.68)†6 (3.1)1.33 (0.58–3.03)* 0.73 (0.30–1.76)†12 (3.7)1.50 (0.83–2.72)* 0.93 (0.48–1.80)†