Table 4

 Associations between acid suppressing drugs (proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or histamine2 receptor antagonists (H2 blockers)) and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus, gastric cardia, and gastric non-cardia, compared with non-users, presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

ExposureControls (n (%))Oesophageal adenocarcinomaGastric cardia adenocarcinomaGastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
(n (%))OR (95% CI)(n (%))OR (95% CI)(n (%))OR (95% CI)
*OR adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index.
†OR adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, gastro-oesophageal reflux, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer, and dyspepsia.
Use of PPI or H2 blockers combined
    Never8125 (81.2)213 (74.2)1.00 (reference)140 (71.8)1.00 (reference)234 (71.6)1.00 (reference)
    Past691 (6.9)26 (9.1)1.41 (0.93–2.15)*16 (8.2)1.32 (0.78–2.23)*20 (6.1)0.98 (0.61–1.56)*
    Current (all durations)1184 (11.8)48 (16.7)1.57 (1.14–2.17)*39 (20.0)1.93 (1.34–2.77)*73 (22.3)1.61 (1.12–2.30)*
1.13 (0.75–1.72)†1.09 (0.68–1.75)†1.69 (1.19–2.41)†
    Current <1 year526 (5.3)11 (3.8)0.81 (0.44–1.50)*24 (12.3)2.69 (1.72–4.19)*37 (11.3)2.38 (1.61–3.33)*
0.65 (0.34–1.26)†1.54 (0.91–2.61)†1.90 (1.26–2.88)†
    Current 1–3 years315 (3.2)11 (3.8)1.34 (0.72–2.49)*9 (4.6)1.63 (0.82–3.24)*16 (4.9)1.74 (1.03–2.93)*
0.95 (0.47–1.85)†0.88 (0.41–1.88)†1.38 (0.77–2.47)†
    Current >3 years343 (3.4)26 (9.1)2.99 (1.95–4.59)*6 (3.1)1.03 (0.45–2.36)*20 (6.1)2.00 (1.24–3.20)*
2.19 (1.30–3.70)†0.53 (0.21–1.30)†1.26 (0.71–2.23)†