Table 7

 Associations between long term use of acid suppressing drugs and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma compared with non-users stratified by treatment indication, presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

ExposureControls (n (%))Gastric cardia adenocarcinomaGastric non-cardia
(n (%))OR (95% CI)¶(n (%))OR (95% CI)¶
*More than 3 years of current use of either proton pump inhibitors (PPI) or histamine2 receptor antagonists (H2 blockers).
†Including gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and unspecified peptic ulcer.
‡Including gastro-oesophageal reflux, oesophagitis, hiatal hernia, Barrett’s oesophagus, gastritis, dyspepsia, indigestion, epigastric pain, unknown indication, prophylactic indication, or indication of mixed type.
¶All ORs adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index.
Indication for long term use of PPI or H2 blockers*
    “Peptic ulcer”†76 (0.8)3 (1.5)2.18 (0.67–7.03)11 (3.4)4.66 (2.42–8.97)
    Other indication‡267 (2.7)3 (1.5)0.68 (0.21–2.14)9 (2.8)1.18 (0.60–2.32)