Table 1

 Pretreatment with probiotics reduces the number of adherent bacteria in rats subjected to water avoidance stress

Treatment groupNo of gridsMesh area (mm2)No of adherent bacteriaDensity of adherent bacteria (bacteria/mm2)
IleumColonIleumColonIleumColonIleumColon
Rats from both basal (control) and probiotic groups were subjected to water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress for 10 days, for one hour/day. The presence of adherent bacteria on enterocytes was assessed by transmission electron microscopy in sections of distal ileum and colon taken from four animals per group. Randomly selected areas in eight ultrathin sections from each group were examined, and the number of adherent bacteria reported per mm2 of surface area.
*p<0.05 compared with controls; †p<0.05 compared with WAS.
Control3352953.352.950000
Probiotics3072763.072.760000
WAS3323083.323.0894*107*28.3*34.7*
Probiotics+WAS3182863.182.8614†21†4.4†7.3†