Table 3

 Effect of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and pioglitazone (PGZ) treatment on ALT, necroinflammation, hepatic expression of proinflammatory mediators, and hepatic iNOS protein

ControlCCl4 5 wkCCl4 2 wk + CCl4/PGZ 3 wk
ALT, alanine aminotransferase; IL, interleukin; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase.
‡Hepatic mRNA levels measured by real time polymerase chain reaction using RPL-19 mRNA as an invariant control and expressed relative to values in the control group arbitrarily set at 1 (see materials and methods).
§Hepatic protein measured by western blotting and expressed as a ratio of the optical density of the iNOS band to that of β-actin, used as a loading control (see materials and methods).
*No significant difference in PGZ treated versus CCl4 only rats.
†p<0.05 or higher degree of significance versus controls.
ALT (IU/l)48 (12)345 (189)†332 (168)†*
Ishak’s score necrosis0.1 (0.1)4.8 (2.7)†4.4 (1.9)†*
Ishak’s score+inflammation0.3 (0.2)8.5 (4.4)†7.3 (3.2)†*
IL-6 mRNA‡1 (0.2)5.2 (1.8)†7.0 (2.5)†*
IL-1β mRNA‡1 (0.2)9.2 (4.2)†14.3 (3.7)†*
MCP-1 mRNA‡1 (0.4)2.1 (0.5)†3.2 (2.2)†*
CINC (IL-8) mRNA‡1 (0.6)13.5 (2.2)†10.8 (3.1)†*
iNOS protein§35 (11)108 (32)†153 (41)†*