Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses on the risk for reflux oesophagitis by smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (after matching for age and sex)
Cases (%)Controls (%)Univariate analysisMultivariate analysis*
(n = 3539)(n = 3539)OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
Current smoking
    Yes31.923.61.52 (1.37 to 1.69)<0.0011.42 (1.27 to 1.58)<0.001
Alcohol consumption
    Yes24.617.71.52 (1.35 to 1.71)<0.0011.41 (1.25 to 1.58)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
    ⩾2543.334.11.48 (1.34 to 1.62)<0.0011.13 (0.92 to 1.29)0.056
Metabolic syndrome
    Yes26.918.51.62 (1.45 to 1.81)<0.0011.42 (1.26 to 1.60)<0.001
  • *Adjusted for smoking, alcohol, BMI and metabolic syndrome.

  • BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.