Table 3 Possible pathophysiological components in the hyperdynamic circulation and cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhosis
Peripheral and splanchnic arterial vasodilatation
    Baroreceptor-induced increase in heart rate
Autonomic dysfunction
    Increased sympathetic nervous activity
    Vagal impairment
Alterations in cardiac preload
    Increased portosystemic shunting
    Increased blood volume
    Effects of posture
    Decreased blood viscosity
Alterations in oxygen exchange
    Anaemia
    Hypoxaemia
    Hepatopulmonary syndrome
    Portopulmonary hypertension