Table 1 Characteristics of participants
VariablesControls (n = 260)OAC (n = 227)p Value*Oesophageal tumours (n = 131)p Value*Junctional tumours (n = 92)p Value*BO (n = 224)p Value*RO (n = 230)p Value*
Gender0.990.870.590.550.47
    Male220 (84.6%)192 (84.6%)110 (84.0%)80 (87.0%)185 (82.6%)189 (82.2%)
    Female40 (15.4%)35 (15.4%)21 (16.0%)12 (13.0%)39 (17.4%)41 (17.8%)
Age0.280.370.410.570.22
    Mean years63.064.264.264.362.461.7
Education<0.001<0.001<0.0010.01<0.001
    Years12.010.710.810.611.310.8
Job type0.010.010.250.020.71
    Manual119 (48.0%)128 (59.5%)77 (63.1%)49 (55.1%)130 (59.1%)107 (48.2)
    Non-manual129 (52.0%)87 (40.5%)45 (36.9%)40 (44.9%)90 (40.9%)115 (51.8)
GOR symptoms†<0.001<0.01<0.001<0.001<0.001
    Never211 (81.2%)117 (51.5%)64 (48.9%)51 (55.4%)60 (26.8%)140 (60.9%)
    Ever49 (18.8%)110 (48.5%)67 (51.2%)41 (44.6%)164 (73.2%)90 (39.1%)
Smoking status<0.001<0.001<0.010.400.03
    Never102 (40.2%)45 (20.4%)26 (20.2%)19 (21.4%)87 (39.2%)109 (48.4%)
    Ex-smoker107 (42.1%)99 (44.8%)57 (44.2%)40 (44.9%)85 (38.3%)68 (30.2%)
    Current45 (17.7%)77 (34.8%)46 (35.7%)30 (33.7%)50 (22.5%)48 (21.3%)
Alcohol (No./%)0.690.610.920.140.15
    Never69 (26.5%)65 (28.9%)38 (29.5%)25 (27.5%)57 (25.6%)57 (26.0%)
    Ever191 (73.5%)160 (71.1%)91 (70.5%066 (72.5%)166 (74.4%)162 (74.0%)
    Mean (g/day)26.119.20.0115.90.1812.0<0.0122.30.2122.00.15
Body mass index<0.001<0.001<0.010.900.05
    Mean (kg/m2)27.028.728.628.727.027.8
Location0.361.000.05<0.001
Northern Ireland121 (46.5%)115 (50.7%)61 (46.6%)54 (58.7%)152 (67.9%)230 (100%)
Republic of Ireland139 (53.5%)112 (49.3%)70 (53.4%)38 (41.3%)72 (32.1%)0 (0%)
H pylori 0.030.0010.83<0.001<0.001
    Positive157 (62.1%)100 (51.9%)55 (44.7%52 (63.4%)93 (43.3)97 (42.4)
    Negative96 (37.9%)108 (48.1%)68 (55.3%))30 (36.6%)122 (56.7132 (57.6)
CagA0.140.020.790.010.11
    Positive150 (59.3%)109 (52.4%)57 (46.3%)50 (61.0%)102 (47.4)119 (60.0)
    Negative103 (40.7%)99 (47.6%)66 (53.7%)32 (39.0%)113 (52.6)110 (40.0)
Gastric atrophy
(pepsinogen I/II ratio <3)0.500.010.10<0.001<0.001
    Yes23 (9.6%)16 (8.8%)3 (2.5%)13 (16.3%)3 (1.5)<0.0014 (1.7)<0.001
    No217 (90.4%)190 (92.2%)119 (97.5%)67 (83.8%)198 (98.5)225 (98.3)
(pepsinogen I/II ratio <7)0.010.0030.55<0.001<0.001
    Yes93 (38.8%)57 (27.7%)28 (23.0%)28 (35.0%)13 (6.5%)<0.00131 (13.5%)<0.001
    No147 (61.3%)149 (72.3%)94 (77.0%)52 (65.0%)188 (93.5%)198 (86.5%)
Daily PPI use
(⩾1 year before interview)0.200.200.37<0.001<0.001
    Yes28 (10.8%)33 (14.6%)20 (15.3%)13 (14.3%)152 (67.9%)113 (49.1%)<0.001
    No232 (89.2%)193 (85.4%)111 (84.7%)78 (85.7%)72 (32.1%)117 (50.9%)
  • Numbers may vary because of missing data. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.

  • *Comparison = control group. †Symptoms of heartburn or acid reflux experienced at least once per week or >50 times per year, >5 years prior to the interview date.

  • BO, Barrett’s oesophagus; CagA, cytotoxin-associated gene product A; GOR, gastro-oesophageal reflux; OAC, oesophageal adenocarcinoma; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; RO, reflux oesophagitis.