Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted associations between H pylori, Cag A and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis
OAC OR (95% CI)Oesophageal tumours OR (95% CI)Junctional tumours OR (95% CI)BO OR (95% CI)RO OR (95% CI)
H pylori seropositive
Unadjusted0.66 (0.46 to 0.96)0.49 (0.32 to 0.77)1.06 (0.63 to 1.78)0.47 (0.32 to 0.68)0.45 (0.31 to 0.65)
Adjusted*0.52 (0.34 to 0.80)0.38 (0.23 to 0.63)0.83 (0.46 to 1.48)0.41 (0.27 to 0.62)0.42 (0.28 to 0.64)
Adjusted + GOR0.49 (0.31 to 0.76)0.35 (0.21 to 0.59)0.80 (0.44 to 1.45)0.35 (0.22 to 0.56)0.42 (0.27 to 0.65)
Adjusted, GOR positives0.61 (0.27 to 1.37)0.44 (0.18 to 1.06)1.21 (0.40 to 3.71)0.35 (0.17 to 0.76)0.33 ( 0.19 to 0.60)
Adjusted, GOR negatives0.42 (0.24 to 0.74)0.31 (0.15 to 0.62)0.64 (0.30 to 1.38)0.40 (0.20 to 0.79)0.44 (0.27 to 0.72)
Adjusted + GOR + gastric atrophy (pepsinogen I/II ratio <3)0.50 (0.31 to 0.78)0.39 (0.23 to 0.66)0.75 (0.41 to 1.40)0.38 (0.23 to 0.62)0.39 (0.22 to 0.67)
Gastric atrophy-negative subjects only:
Adjusted + GOR (pepsinogen I/II ratio ⩾3)0.47 (0.29 to 0.76)0.36 (0.21 to 0.62)0.75 (0.39 to 1.46)0.38 (0.23 to 0.62)0.47 (0.30 to 0.74)
Adjusted + GOR (pepsinogen I/II ratio ⩾7)0.59 (0.33 to 1.05)0.46 (0.24 to 0.89)0.96 (0.44 to 2.08)0.52 (0.30 to 0.93)0.79 (0.48 to 1.30)
CagA seropositive
Unadjusted0.75 (0.52 to 1.09)0.59 (0.38 to 0.92)1.07 (0.64 to 1.79)0.62 (0.43 to 0.89)0.74 (0.52 to 1.06)
Adjusted*0.60 (0.39 to 0.93)0.48 (0.29 to 0.79)0.82 (0.46 to 1.47)0.55 (0.36 to 0.83)0.69 (0.45 to 1.05)
Adjusted + GOR0.58 (0.37 to 0.90)0.46 (0.27 to 0.76)0.79 (0.44 to 1.43)0.50 (0.31 to 0.79)0.67 (0.43 to 1.03)
Adjusted, GOR positives0.74 (0.33 to 1.65)0.62 (0.26 to 1.48)0.92 (0.33 to 2.60)0.56 (0.27 to 1.17)0.75 (0.42 to 1.35)
Adjusted, GOR negatives0.50 (0.28 to 0.88)0.39 (0.20 to 0.77)0.67 (0.31 to 1.44)0.53 (0.27 to 1.05)0.61 (0.37 to 1.00)
Adjusted + GOR + gastric atrophy (pepsinogen I/II ratio <3)0.62 (0.39 to 0.98)0.52 (0.31 to 0.89)0.79 (0.43 to 1.45)0.55 (0.34 to 0.89)0.77 (0.49 to 1.19)
Gastric atrophy-negative subjects only:
Adjusted + GOR (pepsinogen I/II ratio ⩾3)0.60 (0.37 to 0.97)0.50 (0.29 to 0.87)0.76 (0.40 to 1.47)0.51 (0.31 to 0.84)0.76 (0.48 to 1.19)
Adjusted + GOR (pepsinogen I/II ratio ⩾7)0.81 (0.46 to 1.43)0.69 (0.36 to 1.31)1.10 (0.51 to 2.35)0.75 (0.42 to 1.32)1.27 (0.76 to 2.10)
H pylori or CagA seropositive
Unadjusted0.75 (0.51 to 1.10)0.58 (0.38 to 0.91)1.11 (0.65 to 1.91)0.58 (0.40 to 0.85)0.59 (0.41 to 0.85)
Adjusted*0.61 (0.39 to 0.95)0.48 (0.29 to 0.80)0.89 (0.48 to 1.64)0.53 (0.35 to 0.81)0.53 (0.34 to 0.82)
Adjusted + GOR0.57 (0.36 to 0.91)0.44 (0.26 to 0.75)0.85 (0.45 to 1.59)0.45 (0.28 to 0.73)0.50 (0.32 to 0.79)
Adjusted, GOR positives0.57(0.24 to 1.39)0.43 (0.17 to 1.11)0.96 (0.29 to 3.15)0.36(0.16 to 0.83)0.58 (0.32 to 1.06)
Adjusted, GOR negatives0.52 (0.29 to 0.93)0.43 (0.22 to 0.85)0.70 (0.32 to 1.55)0.59 (0.30 to 1.16)0.47 (0.29 to 0.79)
Adjusted + GOR + gastric atrophy (pepsinogen I/II ratio <3)0.60 (0.37 to 0.97)0.50 (0.30 to 0.86)0.82 (0.43 to 1.58)0.49 (0.30 to 0.80)0.57(0.36 to 0.89)
Gastric atrophy-negative subjects only:
Adjusted + GOR (pepsinogen I/II ratio ⩾3)0.57 (0.35 to 0.94)0.47 (0.27 to 0.81)0.82 (0.41 to 1.62)0.46 (0.28 to 0.76)0.56 (0.35 to 0.89)
Adjusted + GOR (pepsinogen I/II ratio ⩾7)0.77 (0.44 to 1.37)0.65 (0.35 to 1.23)1.11 (0.51 to 2.44)0.65 (0.37 to 1.15)0.89 (0.53 to 1.47)
  • BO, Barrett’s oesophagus; CagA, cytotoxin-associated gene product A; GOR, gastro-oesophageal reflux; OAC, oesophageal adenocarcinoma; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; RO, reflux oesophagitis.

  • *Adjusted for age, gender, measures of socioeconomic status (occupation and years in full time education) body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption, location (except for RO), parental occupation (manual, non-manual work) and household density during childhood.