Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted associations between gastric atrophy and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis
OAC OR (95%CI)Oesophageal tumours OR (95% CI)Junctional tumours OR (95% CI)BO OR (95% CI)RO OR (95% CI)
Gastric atrophy (pepsinogen I/II ratio <3)
Unadjusted0.79 (0.41 to 1.55)0.24 (0.07 to 0.81)1.83 (0.88 to 3.81)0.14 (0.04 to 0.48)0.17 (0.06 to 0.49)
Adjusted*0.92 (0.45 to 1.91)0.29 (0.08 to 1.01)2.21 (0.97 to 5.03)0.13 (0.04 to 0.44)0.17 (0.06 to 0.54)
Adjusted + GOR symptoms1.17 (0.56 to 2.46)0.34 (0.09 to 1.22)2.65 (1.14 to 6.16)0.19 (0.05 to 0.70)0.19 (0.06 to 0.62)
Adjusted + GOR symptoms + PPI use1.07 (0.50 to 2.28)0.34 (0.10 to 1.24)2.29 (0.97 to 5.38)0.23 (0.05 to 0.96)0.27 (0.08 to 0.88)
Gastric atrophy (pepsinogen I/II ratio <7)
Unadjusted0.60 (0.41 to 0.90)0.47 (0.29 to 0.77)0.85 (0.50 to 1.44)0.11 (0.06 to 0.20)0.25 (0.16 to 0.39)
Adjusted*0.52 (0.32 to 0.82)0.42 (0.24 to 0.73)0.71 (0.39 to 1.29)0.08 (0.04 to 0.16)0.17 (0.10 to 0.30)
Adjusted + GOR symptoms0.61 (0.38 to 0.99)0.51 (0.29 to 0.89)0.80 (0.43 to 1.46)0.11 (0.06 to 0.23)0.19 (0.11 to 0.33)
Adjusted + GOR symptoms + PPI use0.62 (0.39 to 0.99)0.51 (0.29 to 0.90)0.78 (0.43 to 1.44)0.16 (0.09 to 0.29)0.12 (0.06 to 0.23)
  • *Adjusted for age, gender, measures of socioeconomic status (occupation and years in full time education), body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption, location (except for RO), parental occupation (manual, non-manual work) and household density during childhood.

  • BO, Barrett’s oesophagus; GOR, gastro-oesophageal reflux; OAC, oesophageal adenocarcinoma; PPI, proton pump inhibitor; RO, reflux oesophagitis.