Table 8 Summary of independent risk factors identified in the present study
LesionIndependent risk factor(s)
Presence of oesophagitisHiatal herniaHigher body mass indexDGOR exposure (supine)
Severity of oesophagitisAcid exposure (upright)
Presence of Barrett’sMale sexDGOR exposure (long-lasting episodes, upright)Acid exposure (long-lasting episodes, upright)
  • DGOR, duodeno-gastro-oesophageal reflux.