Table 1

Demographic and clinical features at presentation (n = 66)

VariableMean (SD) or number (%)
Age (years)13.9 (SD 3.9) (range, 3.2–19.6)
    ⩾10 years55 (83.3%)
Gender (M/F)37/29
BMI (kg/m2)31.2 (SD 7.6)
Type of presentation
Asymptomatic17 (25.8%)
Symptomatic49 (74.2%)
Signs and symptoms*
Abdominal pain31 (47%)
Fatigue19 (28.8%)
Hepatomegaly18 (27.3%)
Splenomegaly3 (4.5%)
Acanthosis nigricans5 (7.6%)
Associated conditions
Obesity (BMI >95th percentile)42 (65.6%)
BMI >97th percentile (z-score, 2.0 or more)38 (57.6%)
Hypertriglyceridaemia31 (47.0%)
Low HDL-cholesterol18 (27.3%)
Hyperglycaemia17 (25.8%)
Hypertension8 (12.1%)
Hypercholesterolemia27 (40.9%)
High LDL-cholesterol15 (22.7%)
Features of metabolic syndrome
011 (16.7%)
1 or more55 (83.3%)
2 or more48 (72.7%)
3 or more19 (28.8%)
  • *Some patients presented with more than one symptom or associated condition.

  • †Hypertriglyceridaemia was defined as a level above the 95th percentile for age and sex; low HDL-cholesterol means a level below the 5th percentile for age and sex; hypertension means a systolic or diastolic blood pressure above the 95th percentile for age, sex and height; hypercholesterolaemia means a level ⩾200 mg/dl; hyperglycaemia means a level of ⩾100 mg/dl; and high LDL-cholesterol means a level ⩾130 mg/dl.

  • ‡The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in patients who met three or more of the following criteria for age and sex: a BMI above the 97th percentile (z-score, 2.0 or more), a triglyceride level above the 95th percentile, an HDL-cholesterol level below the 5th percentile, systolic or diastolic blood pressure above the 95th percentile, and a fasting glucose value of at least 100 mg/dl as proposed.29 30

  • BMI, body mass index; F, female; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; M, male.