Table 2 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between dichotomised serum pepsinogen levels and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial cohort
Cancer type and exposureSerological atrophy,n (%)Crude model*,HR (95% CI)Adjusted model*,†,HR (95% CI)
Subcohort
    PGI (⩽50 μg/l)38 (3.9)NANA
    PGI/II ratio (⩽3)44 (4.5)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽4)73 (7.5)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽5)141 (15)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽6)250 (26)
Gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI (⩽50 μg/l)19 (5.8)1.52 (0.86 to 2.69)1.87 (0.98 to 3.56)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽3)34 (10)2.71 (1.68 to 4.37)2.17 (1.26 to 3.74)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽4)61 (19)3.29 (2.25 to 4.81)2.72 (1.77 to 4.20)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽5)99 (30)2.67 (1.98 to 3.61)2.67 (1.89 to 3.78)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽6)139 (42)2.16 (1.65 to 2.81)1.94 (1.42 to 2.65)
Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI (⩽50 μg/l)26 (4.8)1.24 (0.74 to 2.08)1.74 (0.99 to 3.06)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽3)37 (6.8)1.70 (1.07 to 2.71)1.58 (0.95 to 2.63)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽4)71 (13)2.16 (1.51 to 3.10)2.12 (1.42 to 3.16)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽5)139 (25)2.12 (1.62 to 2.78)2.19 (1.61 to 2.97)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽6)212 (39)1.87 (1.49 to 2.35)1.65 (1.27 to 2.16)
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    PGI (⩽50 μg/l)17 (5.3)1.38 (0.78 to 2.46)1.64 (0.89 to 3.00)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽3)15 (4.6)1.15 (0.63 to 2.08)1.10 (0.59 to 2.04)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽4)32 (9.9)1.60 (1.03 to 2.47)1.56 (0.99 to 2.47)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽5)57 (18)1.34 (0.96 to 1.87)1.37 (0.96 to 1.95)
    PGI/II ratio (⩽6)91 (28)1.16 (0.88 to 1.54)1.07 (0.79 to 1.45)
  • *Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained from Cox regression models.

  • †Models were adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking (ever vs never), alcohol consumption (any vs none), body mass index and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity.