Table 3 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between serum pepsinogen quartiles and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial cohort†
Cancer type and exposureQuartile 4Quartile 3HR (95% CI)Quartile 2HR (95% CI)Quartile 1HR (95% CI)p Value fortrend test
Gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI1.001.27 (0.87 to 1.86)1.46 (0.96 to 2.21)2.38 (1.53 to 3.71)8.0×10−5
    PGI/II ratio1.000.88 (0.57 to 1.38)1.33 (0.84 to 2.13)2.16 (1.38 to 3.38)2.7×10−5
Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI1.001.19 (0.86 to 1.63)1.51 (1.08 to 2.13)1.33 (0.91 to 1.96)0.041
    PGI/II ratio1.000.79 (0.55 to 1.15)1.30 (0.89 to 1.91)1.73 (1.20 to 2.51)1.1×10−4
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    PGI1.001.06 (0.74 to 1.51)0.97 (0.66 to 1.43)1.37 (0.92 to 2.06)0.20
    PGI/II ratio1.000.75 (0.52 to 1.09)0.72 (0.48 to 1.08)0.86 (0.58 to 1.27)0.53
  • Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained from Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index and H pylori seropositivity. Quartile 4 was the referent category for all analyses and the quartile boundaries were defined as the 75th, 50th and 25th percentiles in the subcohort. For PGI these cut points were 152, 118 and 87 and for PGI/II these were, 13, 8.6 and 5.9, respectively.

  • p Values for trend were obtained from score tests in adjusted models with an added variable that assigned the ordinal quartile values (1 to 4).

  • PG, pepsinogen.