Table 4 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between serum pepsinogen levels and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial cohort, by follow-up time
Cancer type and exposureTime from serum collection to cancer diagnosisp Value for difference
⩽5.25 yearsHR (95% CI)>5.25–10 yearsHR (95% CI)>10 yearsHR (95% CI)
Gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI3.49 (1.69 to 7.22)1.55 (0.47 to 5.17)0.31 (0.03 to 2.84)0.03
    PGI/II ratio(⩽4)2.40 (1.00 to 5.76)2.56 (1.14 to 5.72)2.08 (0.78 to 5.57)0.62
Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI1.50 (0.71 to 3.20)2.48 (0.88 to 6.99)1.29 (0.34 to 4.81)0.64
    PGI/II ratio(⩽4)2.19 (1.35 to 3.54)2.04 (0.93 to 4.46)2.09 (0.82 to 5.34)0.99
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    PGI2.46 (1.18 to 5.15)0.61 (0.13 to 2.89)1.64 (0.49 to 5.53)0.27
    PGI/II ratio(⩽4)1.51 (0.81 to 2.84)1.49 (0.63 to 3.55)1.71 (0.67 to 4.33)0.97
  • Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained from Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking (ever vs never), alcohol consumption (any vs none), body mass index and Helicobacter pylori seropositivity.

  • p Values for difference were obtained from two degrees-of-freedom score tests that compared adjusted models with a single term for exposure to models with three terms, one for each follow-up period.

  • PG, pepsinogen.