Table 5 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between serum pepsinogen levels and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancers in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial cohort, by baseline Helicobacter pylori status
Cancer type and exposureBaseline Helicobacter pylori statusp Value for interaction
H pylori negativeH pylori positive
Gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI/II ratio(>4)1.001.32 (0.93 to 1.86)0.13
    PGI/II ratio(⩽4)0.99 (0.22 to 4.44)3.98 (2.37 to 6.66)
Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma
    PGI/II ratio(>4)1.001.59 (1.18 to 2.13)0.87
    PGI/II ratio(⩽4)2.30 (0.79 to 6.70)3.32 (2.05 to 5.38)
Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma
    PGI/II ratio(>4)1.001.09 (0.80 to 1.49)0.77
    PGI/II ratio(⩽4)1.83 (0.57 to 5.85)1.66 (0.97 to 2.84)
  • Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained from Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, cigarette smoking (ever versus never), alcohol consumption (any versus none), body mass index.

  • p Values for interaction were obtained from Wald tests.

  • PG, pepsinogen.