Table 1

Subject characteristics at baseline and at follow-up

ParameterAll subjectsSubjects with NAFLD at baselineSubjects without NAFLD at baseline
BaselineFollow-upp ValueBaselineFollow-upp ValueBaselineFollow-upp Value
Gender (males/females)70/10028/2242/78
Age (years)45.6 (0.8)46.3 (0.8)<0.000147.4 (1.5)48.2 (1.4)<0.000144.9 (1.0)45.6 (1.0)<0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2)28.9 (0.3)28.1 (0.3)<0.000131.5 (0.5)30.4 (0.6)<0.000127.9 (0.4)27.2 (0.4)<0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)96.3 (0.9)92.8 (0.9)<0.0001104.6 (1.3)100.5 (1.4)<0.000192.9 (1.1)89.6 (1.0)<0.0001
Total body fat (kg)25.3 (0.7)23.1 (0.7)<0.000128.4 (1.3)26.0 (1.5)<0.000123.9 (0.8)21.8 (0.8)<0.0001
Subcutaneous AT† (kg)10.6 (0.3)10.0 (0.3)<0.000112.2 (0.6)11.3 (0.6)0.000110.0 (0.4)9.5 (0.4)<0.0001
Visceral AT† (kg)2.99 (0.13)2.56 (0.13)<0.00014.29 (0.22)3.75 (0.25)<0.00012.45 (0.14)2.07 (0.13)<0.0001
Liver fat‡ (%)5.37 (0.46)3.73 (0.33)<0.000112.95 (0.85)8.39 (0.75)<0.00012.21 (0.11)1.79 (0.13)<0.0001
NAFLD29.4% (n = 50)20.6% (n = 35)<0.0001*100%60% (n = 30)0%4.2% (n = 5)
AST (U/l)24.65 (0.72)23.41 (0.62)0.0428.41 (1.71)25.95 (1.70)0.04623.27 (0.72)22.47 (0.55)0.18
ALT (U/l)25.35 (1.03)22.84 (1.37)0.0232.43 (2.76)26.59 (2.93)0.00122.78 (0.85)21.45 (1.52)0.0005
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.25 (0.04)5.17 (0.04)0.0035.42 (0.07)5.31 (0.08)0.025.18 (0.04)5.11 (0.04)0.02
2 h glucose (mmol/l)6.89 (0.12)6.61 (0.12)0.0087.67 (0.23)6.81 (0.25)0.00056.57 (0.13)6.52 (0.14)0.28
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)60.1 (2.8)52.6 (2.6)<0.000179.4 (5.5)69.5 (6.0)0.00652.1 (2.9)45.5 (2.3)0.002
2 h insulin (pmol/l)498.0 (31.1)412.1 (31.2)<0.0001734.5 (68.0)539.0 (80.8)<0.0001399.4 (29.6)359.2 (27.6)0.047
HPA score8.12 (0.08)8.58 (0.08)<0.00017.91 (0.17)8.45 (0.15)0.0018.20 (0.10)8.63 (0.09)<0.0001
VO2,max (ml/min/kg)24.95 (0.49)26.18 (0.52)0.000222.78 (0.88)24.92 (1.04)0.00425.86 (0.57)26.70 (0.59)0.02
  • Results for follow-up and baseline are given as the mean (SE).

  • *Difference between basal and follow-up was tested by the χ2 test. All other differences between basal and follow-up were tested by the matched pairs t test.

  • †Measured by magnetic resonance tomography.

  • ‡Measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  • AT, Adipose tissue; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate transaminase; HPA, habitual physical activity; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.