Table 1


Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB)Haematemesis, the passage of melaena and/or firm clinical or laboratory evidence of acute blood loss from the UGI tract within previous 10 days.
Patients presenting with iron deficiency anaemia without evidence of acute UGI bleeding were not included.
HaematemesisVomiting of blood or blood clots. Patients presenting with ‘coffee ground’ vomiting that was witnessed by medical or nursing staff were included.
MelaenaThe passage of dark tarry stools witnessed by medical or nursing staff or discovered on rectal examination.
High risk stigmataRed blood in the UGI tract, spurting or oozing, visible vessel, adherent clot for all diagnoses; red spot, wheal marking or nipple sign on varix/varices.
Re-bleedingFurther haematemesis, passage of fresh melaena, continuing or recurring hypotension and tachycardia±fall in haemoglobin after the first endoscopy.
All cause mortalityDeath occurring within the hospital admission up to 30 days post index AUGIB