Table 3

Brain–gut pathway. Baseline psychological distress as a predictor of any functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional dyspepsia (FD) diagnosis at follow-up among controls free of a FGID at baseline

FGID diagnosisPsychological distress variableBaseline clinically elevated psychological distressOR (95% CI)p Value*
Yes, mean (SD)No, mean (SD)
Any FGIDAnxiety2.7 (2.6)1.9 (2.4)1.11 (1.03 to 1.19)0.006
Depression1.3 (2.2)1.1 (2.2)1.04 (0.96 to 1.13)0.293
IBSAnxiety4.0 (3.7)2.7 (3.0)1.11 (1.03 to 1.18)0.005
Depression2.6 (3.5)1.5 (2.7)1.10 (1.03 to 1.18)0.007
FD§Anxiety3.9 (3.1)2.8 (3.1)1.09 (1.0 to 1.20)0.057
Depression2.8 (3.7)1.6 (2.9)1.09 (1.0 to 1.20)0.043
  • * Controlling for age and gender.

  • Controls defined as no FGID.

  • Controls defined as no IBS.

  • § Controls defined as no FD.